Although trained as a civil engineer in China, Chou Wen-chung turned to the study of music after going to the United States in 1946. There he studied with such composers as Otto Luening and Edgar Varese. The relationship with Varese was especially close, and following that composer's death, Chou completed his Nocturnal, a large-scale choral work. Within his own oeuvre Chou has sought to bridge the gap between cultures by applying Asian aesthetic concepts to Western music. Chinese art and literature have provided the inspiration for many of his major compositions. Chou, who is currently Director of the Center for United States-China Arts Exchange, has also had enormous influences as professor of music at Columbia University.
(b. Chefoo, 1923). American composer and teacher of Chinese birth. He took a bachelor's degree in civil engineering while in China; in 1946 he moved to the USA to study architecture but soon devoted himself to music, studying with Slonimsky at the New England Conservatory (1946-9) and with Luening at Columbia University (MA 1954). Perhaps most significantly, between 1949 and 1954 he studied privately with Varese, whose musical executor he is and whose Nocturnal he completed according to the composer's sketches. He has held several academic positions and was appointed professor of music at Columbia in 1972.
Chou's music is a remarkably successful fusion of Chinese tradition and sophiscated Western vocabulary and style. Almost all his major works take as points of departure Chinese poetry, painting, calligraphy or philosophical and aesthetic ideas, and he is conscious of his place in the long tradition of Chinese art. With particular reference to Landscapes (1949) he wrote: 'I was influenced by the same philosophy that guides every Chinese artist, be he poet, painter or musician: affinity to nature in conception, allusiveness in expression, and terseness in realization'.
Landscapes is based on traditional Chinese melodic patterns, combined with somewhat impressionist orchestration and harmony. All in the Spring Wind (1952-3) develops this style in other directions. Pentatonic or quasi-pentatonic patterns are still present (this trait persisted into the 1960s) but the predominantly soft dynamic range of Landscapes has been widened, and a characteristically repetitive, yet continually changing texture, frequently oscillating between registral extremes, is established, along with flexibly mobile tempos. And the Fallen Petals (1954) extends this language: Varese-like intervallic structures, dynamic gestures and sonorities appear.
Two of Chou's principal compositions, The Willows are New and Yu ko, are based on traditional works for the ch'in, a Chinese zither. His interest in this instrument is related to his concern for the variety and richness of which individual notes are capable: the ch'in tablature includes more than 100 symbols, in order to achieve, as Chou has written, 'subtle inflections in the production and control of its tones as a means of expression'. Care in the treatment of single notes is particularly evident in Cursive, the title of which bears witness to Chou's continuing concern with the simultaneous spontaneity and discipline of Chinese calligraphy. Microtonal variations and similar subtle adjustments are found in the flute part; in general, the performers are given an unusual degree of rhythmic freedom within a controlled scheme.....
He was composer-in-residence at the University of Illinois in Urbana (1958) and on the faculties of Brooklyn College (1961-62), Hunter College (1963-64), and Columbia University (from 1964). In 1982 he became an elected member of the Institute of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters.
Marc Ferro is President of the Association of Research at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales and Co-Director of Annales, Economiies, Societes, Civilisations. He is also former editorial secretary and member of the editorial committee of Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique. He writes for anthologies and periodicals and his publications include: The Great War 1914-18 (1973), The 1917 Revolution: A Social History of the Russian Revolution (1980), Cinema and History (Contemporary Film Studies) (1988). Nicholoas II: Last of the Tsars (1991), and Colonization: A Global History (1997).
Master Hsing Yun
Paul Kan Man-lok
Paul Kan Man-lok, a graduate of The Chinese University of Hong Kong, is Chairman of Champion Technology Holdings Limited and Kantone Holdings Limited, which are both listed on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong. He is also the Chairman of Multitone Electronics PLC and Multiton Electronik.
Mr. Kan has been in the telecommunications and computing industry for 30 years, and is most well-known for the development, in 1987, of the world-first multi-lingual pager, the Kantone Pager.
Mr. Kan was awarded the 1st Electronic Design Competition Award in 1988; the Governor Award for Industry in 1989; the 1992 Young Industrialist Award; the Enterprise Trophy of the 1993 Hong Kong Business Award; and in Europe, the 1994 International Trophy for Technology and Quality.
In China, Mr. Kan has been invited to become the Advisor & Vice President of the Executive Committee of the Chinese Literature Foundation; the Honorary President of the Telemetry and Telecontrol Research Institute of the Ministry of Information Industry; and a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference of Anhui Province.
Mr. Shuichi KATO
Kato (b. 1919) is one of postwar Japan's most cosmopolitan literary critics and involved political essayists.... Kato's patrician grandfather owned an Italian restaurant in Tokyo, his doctor father and gentle mother gave him a thoughtfully critical base in traditional Japanese culture, his education made him both a lover of Japan and a Marxist opponent of the Japanese establishment, and his literary translations and studies of European literature after the war made him a Third World intellectual who led demonstrations against the U.S.-Japan security treaty. Kato's gentle writerly skill with personalities and events allows him to put these seemingly contradictory elements together in a way that expands our understanding.
CHIN Yao-chi (Ambrose Y. C. KING)
Ambrose Y.C. King is internationally known for the knowledgeability and fluency with which he uses many of the perspectives of Western social science to discuss Chinese culture, modern Chinese history, and current developments on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. Born in 1935, growing up in Shanghai, he obtained a Ph.D. degree from the University of Pittsburgh and today is Professor of Sociology and Pro-Vice-Chancellor at The Chinese University of Hong Kong. His life, however, has also been rooted in Taiwan, where he lived for many years after the fall of the mainland, and where he obtained both his B.A. and M.A. degrees. Long before the promise of the Republic of China's development became obvious, at least as early as 1966, he recognized it, astutely introduced Western modernization theory to analyze it, understood that pursuing it required not iconoclasm but a process of critically and creatively building on the inherited culture, and widely influenced Taiwan intellectuals as they tried to make sense out of their complicated, often distressing situation (Chin 1979, 1987, 1991). The publication of eleven of his articles written during the last decade (a few originally in English) by Oxford University Press (Chin 1992) rightly indicates that his views about Chinese modernization should be weighted by all those around the world concerned with this issue, not just by small scholarly circles
Linda Nochlin was born in 1931 in New York. She holds a B.A. from Vassar College (1951), and an MA from Columbia University (1952), and a Ph.D from New York University. She is the Lia Ascheson Wallace Professor of Modern Art of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. She specializes in art of the 19th and 20th centuries, with a particular interest in the work of Gustrave Courbet and the impressionists. Among her many publications are Realism and Tradition in Art, 1848-1900: Sources and Documents. Before joining the faculty of NYU's Institute of Fine Arts, Nochlin taught at Vassar, the CUNY Graduate Center, and Yale University. Fellowships she owns include those of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Institute for the Humanities, the Institute for Advanced Study. She was also the 1997 New York Council for the Humanities Scholar. Linda Nochlin's recent publications include: Representing Women (1999), Realism (1997), Andy Warhol: Nudes (Co-author, 1997). The First 38 Years (Co-author, 1997), Women in the 19th Century: Categories and Contradictions (1997), Renoir's Portraits: Impressions of an Age (Co-author, 1997). The Jew in the Text (1995), and Florine Stettheimer: Manhattan Fantasica (1995).
Nochlin specializes in the art of the 19th and 20th centuries, focusing particularly on the work of Gustave Courbet, the Impressionists and issues concerning the representation of women and the work of women artists. She was the first art historian to deal with women's issues in the discipline of art history, an interest which developed through her course on "Women and Art," which she taught at Vassar College in 1969, and an essay published in 1972 entitled "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?"
Among her numerous publications are "Realism and Tradition in Art, 1848-1900: Sources and Documents," "Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, 1874-1904: Sources and Documents," "Realism," "Women Artists: 1550 to 1950" and "Women, Art, and Power and Other Essays." She has also written many articles on modern art and artists, including studies of Degas, Manet, Morisot, Seurat, Matisse and Picasso.
She has received various fellowships and honors, including a Guggenheim Fellowship, a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship, the Arthur Kingsley Porter Prize for the best article published in the "Art Bulletin" in 1967 by a scholar under 40 and the Frank Jewett Mather Prize for Critical Writing, given by the College Art Association in 1977. She has been a fellow of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study...
Nochlin served as a professor of art history and the humanities at Yale University from 1989-92, Distinguished Professor of Art History at City University in New York (CUNY) from 1980-90, and Mary Conover Mellon Professor of Art History at Vassar College from 1971-79. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and of New York University's Institute for the Humanities. In 1984-85, she was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship.
Nochlin earned her bachelor's degree in philosophy from Vassar College in 1951, and her master's degree in English from Columbia University in 1952. She received her doctorate in art history from New York University's Institute of Fine Arts in 1963.
For decades Pauline Oliveros has explored the boundaries between performance and composition through improvisation, electronic sound production, theatre, ritual and mediation. She has collaborated extensively with dancers and other artists in the creation of mixed media performances. Her aesthetics ideals are expressed in her publications, especially Software for People: Collected Writings, 1963-1980. Oliveros has also influenced a number of musicians as an instructor; she taught electronic music at the University of California at San Diego for fourteen years. In addition she has served in an advisory capacity for organizations such as The National Endowment for the Humanities and The New York State Council for the Arts. Her compositions have earned her several awards including the Pacifica Foundation National Prize (U.S.), Gaudeamus Prize (Netherlands) and the Beethoven Prize. (Germany)
"Through Pauline Oliveros and Deep
Listening I finally know
Pauline Oliveros, composer, performer and humanitarian is an important pioneer in American Music. Acclaimed internationally, for four decades she has explored sound -- forging new ground for herself and others. Through improvisation, electronic music, ritual, teaching and meditation she has created a body of work with such breadth of vision that it profoundly effects those who experience it and eludes many who try to write about it.
"...on some level, music, sound, consciousness and religion are all one, and she would seem to be very close to that level." - John Rockwell
Oliveros has been honored with awards, grants and concerts internationally. Whether performing at the John F. Kennedy Center in Washington D.C., in an underground cavern, or in the studios of West German Radio, Oliveros' commitment to interaction with the moment is unchanged. She can make the sound of a sweeping siren into another instrument of the ensemble. Through Deep Listening Pieces and earlier Sonic Meditations Oliveros introduced the concept of incorporating all environmental sounds into musical performance. To make a pleasurable experience of this requires focused concentration, skilled musicianship and strong improvisational skills, which are the hallmarks of Oliveros' form. In performance Oliveros uses an accordion which has been re-tuned in two different systems
of her just intonation in addition to electronics to alter the sound of the accordion and to explore the individual characteristics of each room. (Tuning Chart)
Pauline Oliveros has built a loyal following through her concerts, recordings, publications and musical compositions that she has written for soloists and ensembles in music, dance, theater and interarts companies. She has also provided leadership within the music community from her early years as the first Director of the Center for Contemporary Music (formerly the Tape Music Center at Mills), director of the Center for Music Experiment during her 14 year tenure as professor of music at the University of California at San Diego to acting in an advisory capacity for organizations such as The National Endowment for the Arts, The New York State Council for the Arts, and many private foundations. Oliveros has been vocal about representing the needs of individual artists, about the need for diversity and experimentation in the arts, and promoting cooperation and good will among people.
(b. Kremenets, 21 July 1920). American violinist of Russian birth. When he was a year old he was taken to San Francisco. He studied at the San Francisco Conservatory (1928-31), then with Louis Persinger; from 1932 to 1937 he studied with Naoum Blinder, a violinist of the Russian school, and his principal teacher. He made his debut in 1935 in recital and with the San Francisco SO under Monteux in 1936. In the same year he played with the Los Angeles PO under Klemperer. He made his New York debut on 11 October 1937 but returned to San Francisco for further study. After his second New York recital on 18 Februrary 1939 he quickly joined the front rank of American violinists. In 1943-4 he played for Allied troops in Greenland, Iceland and the South Pacific.
Stern made his European debut in 1948 at the Lucerne Festival under Munch and after that toured Europe regularly. He first played at the Casals Festival, Prades, in 1950 and at the Edinburgh Festival in 1953; he toured the USSR in 1956 . He has also played in Australia, Japan, South America and Israel. In 1960, with Eugene Istomin and Leonard Rose, he formed a trio which has received wide acclaim. For the Beethoven bicentenary the trio gave notable Beethoven programmes in London, Paris, New York and other centres. Stern has played the great concertos from Bach to Bartok, the complete trios of Beethoven and Brahms as well as a chamber music series with Casals, and sonatas with his piano partner Alexander Zakin. He has also given the premieres of concertos by William Schuman and Leonard Bernstein and has recorded soundtracks for films, such as Humoresque (1946), Tonight we Sing, in which he impersonated Ysaye (1953), and Fiddler on the Roof (1971). As a soloist and with the trio, Stern has performed at the White House on several occasions.
Stern is recognized as one of the world's foremost violinists. His distinctive style reflects his vibrant personality, total involvement in music and intense communication with his listeners. His interpretations are vital and exuberant, his tone warm and expressive. His feeling for style is impeccable; invariably he finds the right inflection to bring the music alive. His technique is subordinate to his musical concept. 'To use the violin to make music, never to use music just to play the violin' is his principle. Stern's favourite violins are two by Guarneri 'del Gesu', the so-called 'Vicomte de Panette' of 1737 and the one formerly played by Eugene Ysaye, made in 1740.
In 1960 Stern organized a group to save Carnegie Hall, and became president of the Carnegie Hall Corporation, responsible for the cultural programmes. In 1964 he helped to establish the National Endowment for the Arts, sponsored by the US Government, and was appointed a member of the advisory board by President Johnson. As chairman of the board of the America-Israel Cultural Foundation, he is playing a vital role in aiding the careers of many young musicians.
In 1986 he celebrated the 50th anniversary of his orch. debut. He received various honors; in 1979 he was made an Officer of the Legion d'honneur of France, in 1984 he received the Kennedy Center Honors Award, in 1987 was given the Wolf Prize of Israel, and in 1992 he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Stern belongs to the galaxy of virtuoso performers to whom fame is a natural adjunct to talent and industry; he is also active in general cultural undertakings, and is an energetic worker for the cause of human rights.
Laruent Thevenot is professor at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (Paris) and Senior researcher at the Centre d'Etudes de l'Emploi. Currently director of the Groupe de Sociologie Politique et Morale (EHESS-CNRS), he co-authored, with Luc Boltanski, De la Justification. This book, which analyzes the most legitmate forms of evaluation governing political, economic and social relationships, has been influential in new French Institutional economics and sociology. Other publicatioins in the "Economie des conventions" include Conventions economiques and Le travail; marches, regles, conventions (this last book was co-edited with Robert Salais). He recently edited two books concerning new approaches of action, the practical engagement of objects and social cognition: Les objets dans l'action (with Bernard Conein and Nicolas Dodier); Cognition et information en societe (with Bernard Conein). A co-edited book with Miochele Lamont presenting the results of a four-year comparative research (NSF-CNRS) is forthcoming at Cambridge University Press: Comparing Culures and Polities: Repertoires of Evaluation in France and the United States.
Before joining Harvard as Professor of Chinese History and Philosophy in 1981, Dr. Tu taught Chinese intellectual history at Princeton University and University of California at Berkeley. He has conducted research and given lectures on Confucian thought in China regularly since 1978. In 1985, he was a Fulbright Research Scholar in China and was asked to teach "Confucian Philosophy" in the Department of Philosophy at Peking University. He also taught the modern transformation of Confucian humanism as a Visiting Professor in the Department of Philosophy and History at Taiwan University in the summer of 1988. He taught Neo-Confucian thought as a Visiting Professor at Ecole Pratique de Haute Etudies in Paris in the winter of 1990. He was director of the Institute of Culture and Communication, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii from 1990-91, while on leave from Harvard.
Tu Weiming's research interests are Confucian humanism, Chinese intellectual history, philosophies of East Asian, and comparative religion. He is on the editorial boards of the Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Asian Thought and Society, Philosophy East and West, Chinese Cultural Quarterly, The Twenty-First CenteryandCultural China. He has served as Chair of the Committee on the Study of Religion and Chair of the Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at Harvard University. He is currently chair of the Advisory Board of the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy, Academia Sinica, vice chair of the Board of Directors of the International Confucian Association in Beijing, co-moderator of the Aspen Seminar on The Chinese in the Global Community, fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and President of Contemporary, an intellectual journal published in Taiwan. He has published in Chinese and English.
His publications in English include the following:
His publications in Chinese include five collections of essays, interviews, and lectures. He is also anthologized as a leading exponent of New Confucianism in the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore.
He has given major speeches and held several endowed lectureships:
The Organizing Committee would like to thank Prof. LIEW Soung Chang, Mr. Eddie LAU, Mr. Germen Chung, Mr. NG Chi-ming, and Mr. LAU Siu-pang of the Information Engineering Department, CUHK for their expertise and technical support. The content of these biography pages is provided by the Reference Library of The Chinese University of Hong Kong. We would like to thank Mr. C.K. Lam of the Reference Library without whose help these web pages could not have been made available to you. Thank you for your interest in the Congress 2000 and the future of human values.